Definition and Models of Social Enterprise in Peru

Definition and Models of Social Enterprise in Peru

The idea behind the «One day, one team, one chapter…» series is to present the four books published in the framework of the ICSEM Project and the Empower-SE Action, Social Enterprise in Asia, Social Enterprise in Latin America, Social Enterprise in Western Europe and Social Enterprise in Central and Eastern Europe, and to introduce the so many incredible people who took part in the crazy “ICSEM adventure”!

Four models of social enterprise born from a hybridisation process undergone by two distinct groups of organisations

The chapter describes the panorama of social enterprises in Peru, proposing a concept and models according to the context of the country.

It puts forward a definition based on a historical review of the roots of Peruvian social enterprises, which are a product of the hybridisation process undergone by organisations of the third sector that started looking at the market as an ally to survive and to scale up social solutions, and by businesses that believed that their success was interdependent with societal welfare and that they were ethically obliged to be part of a change in the system. A social enterprise is considered as a private and formal organisation with an entrepreneurial dynamic and market strategies whose aim is to tackle a social or environmental problem and which is economically sustainable, mainly thanks to the sale of a product or service in the market and, to a lesser extent, to the use of other public or private funds. Social enterprises’ profit-distribution policy is coherent with their purpose.

The chapter also presents four models of social enterprise (SE) which capture the variety and complexity of the SE field in terms of activities and legal forms. These are: the non-profit SE model; the social-business model; the social-cooperative model; and the non-profit/social-business model. A characterisation of the economic and entrepreneurial, social and participatory governance dimensions of these models is included. Finally, the chapter points out the challenges that social enterprises and their ecosystem are facing.

The country team: María Ángela and Susy (Peru)

María Ángela Prialé is an associate full-time professor and researcher in the Academic Department of Administration at Universidad del Pacífico (Lima, Peru). Professor Prialé currently lectures at graduate and post-graduate levels. She holds a Master in Development and International Aid from the Universidad Complutense (Madrid, Spain) and a degree in Business Administration from Universidad del Pacífico; she also followed the Government and Public Management Doctorate Programme from the Universidad Complutense. Beside her academic experience, Professor Prialé has worked for private, non-profits and public organisations leading social programmes in Peru and Spain..


Susy Caballero holds a Master of Science in International Development Studies from the University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and a Bachelor of Business Administration from the Universidad del Pacífico (Lima, Peru); she also pursued leadership postgraduate studies at THNK School of Creative Leadership (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). She has nine years of professional experience—the latest five in managerial positions—in companies, non-profit organisations, academia and public institutions. She has been a Professor at the Universidad del Pacífico and the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. She has five academic publications and has been a speaker at four conferences. She is currently the manager of Fundación Niños del Arco Iris.


Visit the Routledge website to get information about the “Social Enterprise in Asia” book as well as the full Social Enterprise and Social Innovation series. You can also contact these national researchers to learn more about their work or download the ICSEM Project’s flyer here.

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